Cornea pathology. Keratoplasty indications.
Cornea pathology covers roughly 25 % of eye disorders. Ophthalmologists distinguish the following cornea abnormalities: genetically determined (anomalies, tumours, dystrophy, inflammations); acquired (injuries, post-surgery cicatrix); dystrophy; inflammation.
See: eye cornea structure.
Causes of cornea deceases
Nowadays there are numerous factors that cause cornea deceases, and every year it grows unfortunately, namely: ecology problems, injuries, infections, genetic peculiarities.
Among other reasons are complications linked with inobservance of contact lenses use, negative effects of ophthalmic surgeries, common and professional eye injuries. Such changes sometimes are not visually seen and can be detected only in the course of a bio-microscope research during vision testing.
Today the Excimer Clinic has state-of-art diagnostic means, advanced procedures and unique equipments to carry out research to detect disturbances and problems at very early stages. In order to be safe from possible problems and make sure one’s eyesight is not threatened, one should undergo diagnostic checks at least once a year, even there are no complaints whatsoever.
- Keratoconus is largely genetically determined problem of the cornea tissue that leads to it’s dystrophy and thinning. This results in the state when the cornea, instead of being spheric (which is the norm), takes other (conic) shape which leads to serious and irreversible distortions of the eye optics, up to rupture.
- Keratoglobus – megalocornea is an inherent defect of eye development when the total cornea is protruded forward, while the total curvature has got the right shape (unlike in case of keratoconus). Keratoglobus is treated through cornea implantation.
- Congenital opacity caused by disturbances of embryonic development due to mother’s decease.
- Microcornea – a condition when the cornea diameter is too small and macrocornea – when cornea is larger say by 1 mm compared to the age standard are the cornea abnormalities that are untreatable.
- congenital (primary);
- acquired (secondary).
Congenital (primary) dystrophy are inherited and in most cases appear in early childhood and progress in time, and are usually caused, among other reasons, by problems during pregnancy.
Acquired (secondary) dystrophy may developed as a result of: collagenosis, congenital glaucoma, keratoconus progression, vitamin deficiency, conjunctiva and sclera burns, lacrimal fluid deficiency, etc.
Cornea inflammations (keratitis)
Inflamations (keratitis) are usually divided into 2 groups classified by the causes:
- exogenic (disease-producing factor is external);
- endogenic (disease-producing factor is internal, linked to processes in the body).
Trauma and injuries
The possible injuries are: erosions, foreign bodies, non-penetrating and penetrating wounds, burns of various causation, cicatrix, trauma.
Vision distortions caused by cornea pathology due duedue to due to loss of transparency or the shape change are irreversible and cannot be corrected by standard optical means (glasses or contact lenses). In most cases the only solution is a surgery – keratoplasty (total or partial replacement of the damaged cornea area).
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